Genotype-specific features reduce the susceptibility of South American yellow fever virus strains to vaccine-induced antibodiesby DeniseHaslwanter et al.
The resurgence of yellow fever in South America has prompted vaccination against the etiologic agent, yellow fever virus (YFV). Current vaccines are based on a live-attenuated YF-17D virus derived from a virulent African isolate. The capacity of these vaccines to induce neutralizing antibodies against the vaccine strain is used as a surrogate for protection. However, the sensitivity of genetically distinct South American strains to vaccine-induced antibodies is unknown. We show that antiviral potency of the polyclonal antibody response in vaccinees is attenuated against an emergent Brazilian strain. This reduction was attributable to amino acid changes at two sites in central domain II of the glycoprotein E, including multiple changes at the domain I–domain II hinge, which are unique to and shared among most South American YFV strains. Our findings call for a reevaluation of current approaches to YFV immunological surveillance in South America and suggest approaches for updating vaccines.
Effects of Selenium treatment on cardiac function in Chagas heart disease: Results from the STCC randomized Trialby Marcelo T. Holanda et al.
Se treatment did not improve cardiac function (evaluated from LVEF) in CCC. However, in the subgroup of patients at B2 stage, a potential beneficial influence of Se was observed. Complementary studies are necessary to explore diverse Se dose and/or associations in different CCC stages (B2 and C), as well as in A and B1 stages with longer follow-up.
Epidemiology, Biodiversity, and Technological Trajectories in the Brazilian Amazon: From Malaria to COVID-19by Claudia Codeço et al.
The Amazon biome is under severe threat due to increasing deforestation rates and loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services while sustaining a high burden of neglected tropical diseases. Approximately two thirds of this biome are located within Brazilian territory. There, socio-economic and environmental landscape transformations are linked to the regional agrarian economy dynamics, which has developed into six techno-productive trajectories (TTs).
Emerging complexities and rising omission: Contrasts among socio-ecological contexts of infectious diseases, research and policy in Brazilby Leandro Giatti et al.
In this article, we explore elements that highlight the interdependent nature of demands for knowledge production and decision-making related to the appearance of emerging diseases. To this end, we refer to scientific production and current contextual evidence to verify situations mainly related to the Brazilian Amazon, which suffers systematic disturbances and is characterized as a possible source of pathogenic microorganisms.
Identification of a predominant genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Brazilian indigenous populationby S. A. Hadi et al.
After nearly a century of vaccination and six decades of drug therapy, tuberculosis (TB) kills more people annually than any other infectious disease. Substantial challenges to disease eradication remain among vulnerable and underserved populations. The Guarani-Kaiowá people are an indigenous population in Paraguay and the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. This community, marginalized in Brazilian society, experiences severe poverty.