Summary Background Although gay, bisexual, and other cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women have the highest HIV burden in Latin America, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) implementation is poor. We aimed to assess the feasibility of same-day oral PrEP delivery in Brazil, Mexico, and Peru. Methods Implementation PrEP (ImPrEP) was a prospective, single-arm, open-label, multicentre PrEP implementation study conducted in Brazil (14 sites), Mexico (four sites), and Peru (ten sites). MSM and transgender women were eligible to participate if they were aged 18 years or older, HIV-negative, and reported one or more prespecified criteria. Enrolled participants received same-day initiation of daily oral PrEP (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate [300 mg] coformulated with emtricitabine [200 mg]). Follow-up visits were scheduled at week 4 and quarterly thereafter. We used logistic regression models to identify factors associated with early loss to follow-up (not returning after enrolment), PrEP adherence (medication possession ratio ≥0·6), and long-term PrEP engagement (attending three or more visits within 52 weeks). This study is registered at the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials, U1111-1217-6021. Findings From Feb 6, 2018, to June 30, 2021, 9979 participants were screened and 9509 were enrolled (Brazil n=3928, Mexico n=3288, and Peru n=2293). 543 (5·7%) participants were transgender women, 8966 (94·3%) were cisgender men, and 2481 (26·1%) were aged 18–24 years. There were 12 185·25 person-years of follow-up. 795 (8·4%) of 9509 participants had early loss to follow-up, 6477 (68·1%) of 9509 were adherent to PrEP, and 5783 (70·3%) of 8225 had long-term PrEP engagement. Transgender women (adjusted odds ratio 1·60, 95% CI 1·20–2·14), participants aged 18–24 years (1·80, 1·49–2·18), and participants with primary education (2·18, 1·29–3·68) had increased odds of early loss to follow-up. Transgender women (0·56, 0·46–0·70), participants aged 18–24 years (0·52, 0·46–0·58), and those with primary education (0·60, 0·40–0·91) had lower odds of PrEP adherence. Transgender women (0·56, 0·45–0·71), participants aged 18–24 years (0·56, 0·49–0·64), and those with secondary education (0·74, 0·68–0·86) had lower odds of long-term PrEP engagement. HIV incidence was 0·85 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0·70–1·03) and was higher for transgender women, participants from Peru, those aged 18–24 years, Black and mixed-race participants, and participants who were non-adherent to PrEP. Interpretation Same-day oral PrEP is feasible for MSM and transgender women in Latin America. Social and structural determinants of HIV vulnerability need to be addressed to fully achieve the benefits of PrEP. Funding Unitaid, WHO, and Ministries of Health in Brazil, Mexico, and Peru. Translations For the Portuguese and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

6th February 2023 • comment

Summary Background By October 30, 2022, 76,871 cases of mpox were reported worldwide, with 20,614 cases in Latin America. This study reports characteristics of a case series of suspected and confirmed mpox cases at a referral infectious diseases center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods This was a single-center, prospective, observational cohort study that enrolled all patients with suspected mpox between June 12 and August 19, 2022. Mpox was confirmed by a PCR test. We compared characteristics of confirmed and non-confirmed cases, and among confirmed cases according to HIV status using distribution tests. Kernel estimation was used for exploratory spatial analysis. Findings Of 342 individuals with suspected mpox, 208 (60.8%) were confirmed cases. Compared to non-confirmed cases, confirmed cases were more frequent among individuals aged 30–39 years, cisgender men (96.2% vs. 66.4%; p < 0.0001), reporting recent sexual intercourse (95.0% vs. 69.4%; p < 0.0001) and using PrEP (31.6% vs. 10.1%; p < 0.0001). HIV (53.2% vs. 20.2%; p < 0.0001), HCV (9.8% vs. 1.1%; p = 0.0046), syphilis (21.2% vs. 16.3%; p = 0.43) and other STIs (33.0% vs. 21.6%; p = 0.042) were more frequent among confirmed mpox cases. Confirmed cases presented more genital (77.3% vs. 39.8%; p < 0.0001) and anal lesions (33.1% vs. 11.5%; p < 0.0001), proctitis (37.1% vs. 13.3%; p < 0.0001) and systemic signs and symptoms (83.2% vs. 64.5%; p = 0.0003) than non-confirmed cases. Compared to confirmed mpox HIV-negative, HIV-positive individuals were older, had more HCV coinfection (15.2% vs. 3.7%; p = 0.011), anal lesions (45.7% vs. 20.5%; p < 0.001) and clinical features of proctitis (45.2% vs. 29.3%; p = 0.058). Interpretation Mpox transmission in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, rapidly evolved into a local epidemic, with sexual contact playing a crucial role in its dynamics and high rates of coinfections with other STI. Preventive measures must address stigma and social vulnerabilities. Funding Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (INI-Fiocruz).

6th February 2023 • comment

The resurgence of yellow fever in South America has prompted vaccination against the etiologic agent, yellow fever virus (YFV). Current vaccines are based on a live-attenuated YF-17D virus derived from a virulent African isolate. The capacity of these vaccines to induce neutralizing antibodies against the vaccine strain is used as a surrogate for protection. However, the sensitivity of genetically distinct South American strains to vaccine-induced antibodies is unknown. We show that antiviral potency of the polyclonal antibody response in vaccinees is attenuated against an emergent Brazilian strain. This reduction was attributable to amino acid changes at two sites in central domain II of the glycoprotein E, including multiple changes at the domain I–domain II hinge, which are unique to and shared among most South American YFV strains. Our findings call for a reevaluation of current approaches to YFV immunological surveillance in South America and suggest approaches for updating vaccines.

7th February 2022 • comment

Se treatment did not improve cardiac function (evaluated from LVEF) in CCC. However, in the subgroup of patients at B2 stage, a potential beneficial influence of Se was observed. Complementary studies are necessary to explore diverse Se dose and/or associations in different CCC stages (B2 and C), as well as in A and B1 stages with longer follow-up.

7th February 2022 • comment

The Amazon biome is under severe threat due to increasing deforestation rates and loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services while sustaining a high burden of neglected tropical diseases. Approximately two thirds of this biome are located within Brazilian territory. There, socio-economic and environmental landscape transformations are linked to the regional agrarian economy dynamics, which has developed into six techno-productive trajectories (TTs).

16th July 2021 • comment

  In this article, we explore elements that highlight the interdependent nature of demands for knowledge production and decision-making related to the appearance of emerging diseases. To this end, we refer to scientific production and current contextual evidence to verify situations mainly related to the Brazilian Amazon, which suffers systematic disturbances and is characterized as a possible source of pathogenic microorganisms. 

1st February 2021 • comment

After nearly a century of vaccination and six decades of drug therapy, tuberculosis (TB) kills more people annually than any other infectious disease. Substantial challenges to disease eradication remain among vulnerable and underserved populations. The Guarani-Kaiowá people are an indigenous population in Paraguay and the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. This community, marginalized in Brazilian society, experiences severe poverty. 

13th January 2021 • comment