Data is becoming ever more critical and valuable for both scientists and health authorities searching for answers to the COVID-19 crisis. Due to difficulties in diagnosing this infection in populations around the world, initiatives supported by digital technologies have been developed by governments or private companies which enable the tracking of the public’s symptoms, contacts and movements. Considering the current scenario, these initiatives, designed to support the surveillance and monitoring of contagion, are essential and necessary. Nonetheless, ethical, legal and technical questions remain unanswered regarding the amount and types of personal data being collected, processed, shared and used in the name of public health, as well as the concomitant or later use of this data. These challenges demonstrate the need for new models of responsible and transparent data and technology governance in efforts to control Sars-Cov2 as well as future public health emergencies.